A stem cell transplant is used to restore normal blood cell production in people whose bone marrow has been damaged.
A stem cell transplant (SCT) allows children to have much higher doses of chemotherapy than they could otherwise tolerate. This improves the chance of curing their cancer but has more side effects. Very high doses of chemotherapy destroy the blood stem cells in bone marrow, so after high-dose chemotherapy a child will be given stem cells via a drip. These make their way to the bone marrow and start producing blood cells again.
Stem cell transplantation is the new terminology for what used to be known as bone marrow transplantation. The new terminology reflects a different way of collecting the cells for transplantation.