There is considerable variation in survival between the different diagnostic groups. Bone tumours and soft tissue sarcomas have the lowest survival overall – with a five-year survival of 56% and 61% respectively.
Survival is significantly lower in TYAs than in children for several cancer types, including bone tumours and soft tissue sarcomas.
The difference in survival is particularly marked in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), which has a five-year survival rate of 92% in children and 61% in TYA.
The TYA group also fare worse with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which has a survival rate of 69% in children and 57% in TYA. In ALL, and to a lesser extent AML, 5-year survival decreases markedly with age from 0-49 years.
For brain tumours however, survival is higher in the TYA group (at 82 percent) than either the younger or the older age groups.
The reasons for these differences in survival are not fully understood but may be partly explained by factors relating to diagnosis, different treatment protocols and levels of participation in clinical trials.