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Types of cancer

4,000 children and young people are diagnosed with cancer every year in the UK. That’s ten every day.

The types of cancer affecting children are quite different from the cancers that affect teenagers and young adults (TYA); TYA cancers are different again from the types of cancer that typically affect adults aged 25+.

Thanks to investment in research and treatment, survival has increased dramatically over the past 50 years and four out of five young cancer patients can be successfully treated.

Below you will find information about the different types of cancer which can affect children, teenagers and young adults.

Read about Childhood Cancer Statistics Read about TYA Cancers

Watch our Video

Professor Geoff Pilkington from the University of Portsmouth explains the types of childhood cancer and why our work is so important.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood leukaemia.

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) accounts for 15 per cent of childhood leukaemias and...

Brain and Spinal Tumours

Brain and spinal cord tumours (commonly referred to as central nervous system, or...

Cancer of the Liver & Liver Tumours

Tumours of the liver (known as hepatic tumours) are very rare in childhood....

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)

CML is a chronic leukaemia – meaning it develops slowly, often over many...

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common type of bone tumour in children....

Germ Cell Tumours

Germ cells tumours are rare, affecting around 45 children every year in the...

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma is the slightly less common form of lymphomas, accounting for around...


Medulloblastoma is the most-common, malignant, childhood brain tumour.


Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumour in childhood, affecting just under...

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the slightly more common form of lymphomas, accounting for around...


Osteosarcoma is the most common type of childhood bone tumour, with around 30...


Retinoblastoma is a type of cancer that affects the light sensitive lining at...


Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, accounting for just...

Wilms’ Tumour

Around 90 children are diagnosed with renal tumours every year in the UK....

Hero patient stories

Read our hero patient stories

How does childhood cancer affect children and young people?

Read personal journeys and first-hand experiences about different cancer types from our hero patients and their incredible families.

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